Download 1991 Solar World Congress by S. M. A. Burley, M. Coleman, M. E. Arden PDF

By S. M. A. Burley, M. Coleman, M. E. Arden

The ISES sunlight global Congress, held in Denver, Colorado in August 1991 attracted over a thousand contributors from approximately 70 international locations, making it the most important solar power occasion of its type on the earth. As an enduring list of that congress, 630 papers are released the following in four volumes of lawsuits. quantity 1 is devoted to solar power, biofuels and renewable assets. quantity 2 comprises papers on energetic sun and sunlight warmth. Passive sun, socio-economic and academic facets are thought of in quantity three, and at last the plenary periods, and the Farrington Daniels lecture are released in quantity four. 1991 sun global Congress offers the very most up-to-date advances within the usage of different strength assets and know-how.

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C. Braatz and J. D. Margerum (1984). In H. W. Lam and M. J. , 215. Carlson, D. , J. G. O'Dowd and R. S. Oswald (1988). Proceedings of the Fourth Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference (Sidney), 529-539. 51 Chamberlin, J. , and D. King (1990). Conference Record of the 21st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 870. Jackson, B. and others (1983). Advanced Photovoltaic Module Costing Manual, SERI/TR-214-1965, DE84000029. McClelland, R. , C. 0. Bozler and J. C. C. Fan (1980). Appl. Phys.

INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe2 and CuInSe2-based alloy materials have emerged as formidable players in the quest for commercially viable photovoltaic technologies, with efficiencies exceeding 14% in small-area devices (Mitchell and Liu, 1988) and 11% in 989 cm2 modules (Mitchell and coworkers, 1988). The latter achievement, though significant, falls short of the DOE milestone of 15% module efficiencies necessary for utility market competitiveness (Zweibel and co-workers, 1990). The future objectives are clear: device and module optimization.

The common feature in all high-efficiency solar cells is the crystalline perfection of the active semiconductor materials. Our challenge is to develop cost-effective manufacturing technologies that retain the desired single-crystal structure of the high-efficiency solar cell materials. 47 The near-term goal of the Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program is to reduce the cost of photovoltaic generated electricity to 12 cents per kilowatt-hour. To achieve this near-term goal, it has been calculated' that in multimegavatt systems, flat-plate modules of 20% efficiency could be nearly three times more expensive than 10%-efficient modules and produce energy for the same cost (U S DOE, 1987).

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