By Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)
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Extra resources for 3D Contrast MR Angiography
Three-dimensional (3D) contrast MRA now offers several advantages that make pulmonary MRA possible. The 3D spoiled gradient echo technique has an intrinsically short echo time (TE). With high performance gradients, echo times under 3 and even 1-2 ms are available. These are sufficient to eliminate susceptibility artifact. Due to the enhancement with paramagnetic contrast, 3D contrast MRA is less affected by inflow variations that create pulsation artifact on time-of-flight and phase contrast imaging.
Absence of pulmonary embolism was confirmed by conventional pulmonary arteriography. Diagnosis: Normal pulmonary arteries; no embolism. , Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A large field-of-view is required to encompass both lungs and to avoid excessive wraparound from the arms and shoulders. While wraparound can be somewhat reduced by elevating the arms over the head, it is virtually impossible to completely eliminate wraparound from the shoulders. Thus, generally a field-of-view of 40-48 cm is required.
This is best accomplished with techniques that acquire sequential data sets, like the time-resolved method. However, the misregistration artifacts associated with motion are generally less severe than those with x-ray DSA because the subtraction is performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis rather than over a thick volume of data. How Should 3D MRA Data Sets Be Interpreted? 3D MR angiography image data are best interpreted on an independent computer workstation with 3D reconstruction capabilities. Image analysis should always include careful scrutiny of the individual source images as weil as thin multiplanar reformations of the underlying 3D data set in multiple planes.