Download A Phonetic Study of West African Languages (Second Edition) by Peter Ladefoged PDF

By Peter Ladefoged

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This is an example of an implicit performative clause which could be transformed into an explicit performative clause by being reworded as follows: (7) This Treaty prohibits such acts and decisions from forming part of the Union acquis. Seen from this perspective, prescriptive legal texts contain an abundance of implicit performative clauses: indeed, most main clauses in legal texts can be considered as such. According to Trosborg (1997: 105-106) in her study of shall in British statutes, over 65% of instances of shall occur with non-human subjects which could not be given orders or assigned obligations.

A large number of foreign lexical items or expressions in legal texts come from Latin, such as ex parte (on behalf of), in situ (in its original or natural position) or ratio legis (the reason for, or principle behind, a law). It should be borne in mind that the Latin used by the legal profession was adapted to the needs of English law and that it eventually developed into something called Law Latin (Tiersma 1999: 25). 3. Frequent repetition of particular words, expressions and syntactic structures Another characteristic of legal language is the repetition of words, expressions and syntactic structures instead of using, for example, pronoun references or other types of anaphora.

Although the language of court proceedings has also been widely studied from linguistic and pragmatic perspectives in recent years, it will not form part of our enquiry in this volume. e. it is based on the dynamics of oral communication, even if some of it may subsequently be transformed into the written form. Furthermore, if one examines, say, the written text of a judicial decision, it is typically divided into three parts: a) a summary identification of the issues or questions of law raised (technically known as the major premise); b) a description of the case being judged (the so-called minor premise) in which the facts are established, generally conveyed in the past tense and constituting the bulk of the text; and c) the verdict in which the judge applies the law to the facts (the so-called conclusion).

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