By Alene Moyer
This paintings significantly addresses the age debate in moment language acquisition experiences, providing an in-depth examine of things that expect overseas accessory. Quantitative and qualitative analyses ascertain that cognitive, social, and mental elements give a contribution to attainment, and that organic impacts needs to for this reason be thought of along those crucial points of learner adventure.
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Additional info for Age, Accent and Experience in Second Language Acquisition: An Integrated Approach to Critical Period Inquiry (Second Language Acquisition (Buffalo, N.Y.), 7.)
Brown (1987) describes it as the ability to understand the experience and feelings of another, which implies self-awareness as well as identification with another person. As interlocutors, we ‘permeate our ego boundaries so that we can send and receive messages clearly’ (Brown, 1987: 108). In second language learning, the learner must attempt this even when linguistically and culturally insecure. Over the long run, the extent of one’s ethnic and cultural identification, along with the desire to acculturate, can have a marked impact on linguistic attainment (see Young & Gardner, 1990).
This essential question informs the research: How does the adult learner construct a new phonological system from the available input? According to James (1987, 1989), words themselves allow the learner to tie form to meaning, and phonemes to phonetic reality. Later, prosody and rhythm become important cues in phonological processing. Once learners become aware of segments in their actual phonotactic realizations, a multi-level ‘phonological grammar’ can be constructed. James (1987: 247) maintains that the nature and course of this construction is determined by universal structural characteristics.
8 Aptitude, style, and the ideal learner To what extent can accurate perception and production be taught, and to what extent do these abilities appear only among very advanced or exceptional learners? The search for the ideal language learner has motivated research on style and skill, pertaining to the following: language learning aptitude, short- and long-term memory capacity, deductive reasoning skills (analysis and hypothesis formation based on available input), and degree of conscious attention or focus.