By Blake R. Beattie
This quantity examines a principally neglected Avignonese legation to Tuscany and the Papal States, and assesses its effect on Avignonese papal coverage in Italy.
Read or Download Angelus Pacis: The Legation of Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1326-1334 (The Medieval Mediterranean) PDF
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Additional info for Angelus Pacis: The Legation of Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1326-1334 (The Medieval Mediterranean)
13–16. 47 For all his considerable gifts and wide-ranging interests, Robert was always something of a disappointment to John XXII. John longed for an Italian ally more like Robert’s grandfather and father, Charles I and Charles II: tough, canny, low-slung men who prosecuted their dynastic war against their Aragonese rivals in Sicily with unﬂagging energy and very few scruples. But Robert was cut from diﬀerent cloth. He did not lack in martial ability, and he was certainly no coward, but he was a far less energetic campaigner than his father and grandfather had been.
Kirchenreform zwischen Kardinalkollegium, Kurie und Klientel. Päpste und Papstum 28 (Stuttgart, 1998), pp. 446–457. 28 Tabacco, La casa di Francia, pp. 267–280; idem, “Programmi di politica italiana,” especially pp. 54–55, 63–64. 14 chapter one and the powerful della Torre family, who had led the Milanese Guelfs for much of the thirteenth century. After their defeat and deﬁnitive expulsion by the Visconti in 1311, the Torriani established themselves in Aquileia, where they resumed their now hereditary enmity with the Visconti.
On 21 September he mccxxv 25 defeated a Florentine expeditionary force as it ventured from Pozzeveri; it was by no means a disastrous setback for Cardona’s army, but the defeat further enervated a Guelf force that was already badly demoralized. With the arrival of a mercenary force from Milan the following day—and after a good deal of haggling over the terms of their remuneration—the tide turned decisively in Castruccio’s favor. Exasperated but determined to hold to his original plan, Cardona looked to regroup in the more secure environs of Altopascio, and ordered his men to begin the four-kilometer retreat from Pozzeveri back to the town.